The client-clinician relationship is crucial for addressing substance use. Without trust and support, it’s challenging to guide clients towards reducing their substance use. Taking a non-judgmental approach is essential, as clients must decide for themselves to change. This relates to counterwill, which we’ve discussed before. If we push too hard for abstinence due to mental health impacts, clients may resist and use more. Building strong relationships over time, while maintaining a harm reduction stance, can be beneficial for clients struggling with substance use.